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『基礎 英作文問題精講』日英対訳簡易一覧

1 私はいつも朝早く起きます。 I always get up early in the morning.
2 英語は国際語であり、世界中で使われています。 English is a universal[an international] language and is used all over the world[all around the world, throughout the world, the world over, everywhere in the world].
3 数学と理科が大好きな科目でしたが、歴史も好きでした。 Mathematics and science were my favorite subjects, but I also liked history.
4 お願いがあるのですが。 May I ask you a favor? / Will you do me a favor?
5 どうぞ楽になさってください。 Please make yourself at home[comfortable].
6 あなたは彼女の生年月日を知っていますか? Do you know her date of birth? / Do you know when she was born?
7 あそこの大きな木の下で遊んでいる子供は私の姪です。 The child playing under the big tree there is my niece. / A child who is playing under the big tree there is my niece.
8 私たちは日が昇る前にその山を登り始めた。 We started[began] to climb[climbing] the mountain before sunrise. / We started[began] to climb[climbing] the mountain before the sun rose.
9 私たちはその問題を夜遅くまで議論したが、結論は出せなかった。 We discussed[talked about] the problem[matter, issue] until late at night but couldn't reach[come to, arrive at] a conclusion.
10 子供たちは燃えるような太陽の下で水泳を楽しんでいる。 The children are enjoying swimming under the[a] burning[broiling] sun.
11 彼は僕にもっと一生懸命勉強するようにと激励した。 He encouraged me to study harder.
12 自己紹介させていただきます。私は日本から参りました渡辺です。 Let me introduce myself. I'm Watanabe from Japan.
13 私の名前が呼ばれるの、お聞きになりましたか? Did you hear my name (being) called?
14 私はタロウさんを彼が子供の頃から知っています。 I have known[been acquainted with] Taro since he was still a child.
15 私のクラスは13名の女生徒と15名の男生徒で構成されています。 My class consists of[is composed of, is made up of] thirteen girls and fifteen boys.
16 彼は無実だと私は固く信じています。 I firmly believe that he is innocent[not guilty].
17 彼は列車事故のために会合へ行くことができなかった。 A train accident prevented him from attending[going to] the meeting. / He couldn't attend[get to] the meeting because of[on account of] a train accident.
18 その歌を聞くと、若い頃を思い出す。 The song reminds me of my young(er) days[the days when I was young(er)]. / The song makes me think of my young(er) days.
19 私はまだ北海道へ行ったことがないので、この夏にはぜひ行きたいと思っています。 I have never been to Hokkaido, so I really[truly, at any cost, at all costs] want to be there (during) this summer.
20 私が今朝駅に着いた時にはいつも乗る7時半の電車は出ていた。 I found the seven-thirty train I usually take had already left when I arrived at[reached, got to] the station this morning.
21 4月末までには新校舎は完成しているでしょう。 The new school building will have been completed[built] by the end of April.
22 手に何を持っているのかと彼は私に尋ねた。 He asked me what I was holding[had] in my hand(s).
23 昨日叔父に会ったら、3日前にロンドンから帰ったところだと言っていた。 My uncle told me that he had just come back from London three days before[earlier] when I saw him yesterday.
24 私は今日駅でブラジル人に話しかけられた。 I was spoken to by a Brazilian at the (railway) station today.
25 実験の結果に私たちはみんながっかりした。 We were all[All of us were] disappointed about[by, with, at] the result of the experiment(s).
26 君はこの事件に関係がないから心配する必要はない。 You don't need to worry since you have nothing to do with[because you're not concerned in[with] ] this affair.
27 彼女はその本を読んだことがないかもしれないよ。 She may not have read the book.
28 彼がそう言ったはずがない。 He connot have said so. / It's impossible (that) he said [should have said] such a thing.
29 高校までの授業の主目的は、知識を授けることです。 The main purpose[objective] of education up to [up through] high school is to give knowledge.
30 時々寝坊して、朝ご飯を食べる時間がありません。 I don't have time for [to eat[have] ] breakfast because I sometimes oversleep [get up late].
31 5月5日から6日まであなたが京都に滞在されると聞いて喜んでおります。 I'm glad[happy, pleased] to hear (that) you're going to stay in Kyoto from May 5 through 6.
32 暗い部屋での読書は目に有害である。 Reading books in a dark room is bad[your, the] for our eyes. [is harmful[injurious] to your[our, the] eyes.]
33 私たちは再びあなたにお会いするのを楽しみにしています。 We are looking forward to seeing you again.
34 彼は父が有名な科学者であったことを誇りにしている。 He is proud of his father having been[(that) his father was] a famous scientist.
35 私は昨日、英語で書かれた1通の手紙を受け取った。 We received a letter written in English yesterday [an English letter].
36 どう言ってよいか分からなかったので、私は黙ったままでいた。 Not knowing what to say, I remained silent.
37 空模様からすると、今夜あたり雪になるかもしれない。 Judging from[by] the look of the sky, snow may[might] begin to fall during the night[tonight].
38 辞書に書いてあることが常に正しいとは限らない。 What is written in the dictionary is not always correct.
39 私はこの本の両方とも読んだが、どちらも面白くない。 I (have) read both (of) these books, but neither of them is [I found neither of them] interesting.
40 彼女のことを考えまいとしても無理だった。 It was impossible for me not to think of her. / I found it impossible not to think of her.
41 私にはその仕事を1時間で終えるのは不可能だと分かりました。 I found it impossible (for me) to finish the work in an hour.
42 日本では、中国や韓国のように、名字の後に名前が続く。 In Japan, first[given] names follow[come after, are put after] their[the] family names[surnames] (just) like in China and Korea.
43 景色を楽しみたいので、窓際の席をお願いします。 I'd like a window seat[a seat by the window], please. I want to enjoy the scenery.
44 私は今度の木曜日の午後2時に歯医者の予約がある。 I have an appointment with the dentist at 2:00 p.m. next Thursday[this[the] coming Thursday].
45 昨年のワールドカップの試合は、なかなか面白かった。 The World Cup games held last year[Last year's World Cup (Soccer) games] were very[quite] exciting.
46 私はそれがとても知りたいが、その一方で知るのが怖いような気もする。 I want very much to know it[I am very anxious to know it]. On the other hand, I am afraid to know it.
47 兄は給料が安いとよくこぼしている。 My (older, elder《英》) brother often complains that his salary is low[small] [about his small[low] salary].
48 そこに居合わせたほとんどすべての人々がどっと笑い出した。 Almost all (of) the people (who were) there burst into[out] laughing.
49 今日ではプライバシーという概念は当然のものと考えられている。 Today, the idea of privacy is taken for granted.
50 大阪に行ったのはジョージではなくロビンでした。 It was Robin, not George, that[who] went to Osaka.
51 私が水曜日の午後ここで見たのはこの2人の子供です。 It was these two children that[who(m)q] I saw here on Wednesday afternoon.

Translation Practice part 4: contents

Displays may be in color or in black and white.




  • ①あるカテゴリーを示す名詞が主語で、②その主語の一般的な性質を示す文に、③mayが使われている場合は、④その主語が人間以外の事物であれば「~には~のものがある[いる]」といった意味になる。
  • 「~は、AまたはBかもしれない」と訳すと不自然。
    1. Cかもしれないという他の選択肢を含意してしまう。
    2. 主語にはthe displaysといった特定されたものがくると考えられるが、今回は主語が無冠詞の複数形で一般的な特性を表している。


Electron tubes include vacuum-tube diodes, amplifiers, and the cathode-ray tube(CRT) for a visual display device.




  • 主語が概念で、目的語がその下位に属する概念である場合は、一種の例示の表現となる。
  • 上位概念、下位概念の関係にあるかは、主語が総称表現として「カテゴリー」を示しているかが一つの目安。
  • 「など」が抜けてしまうと、電子管には三種類のものしかないことになってしまうのでマズい。


Imports present a challenge to local goods.




  • 「輸入品が国産品にa challengeを与える」→「輸入品は国産品にとってa challengeとなる」。無生物主語なので前者だと不自然になる。ただし、現象を主語として「影響を与える」「打撃を与える」というような訳になる場合は別。
  • challengeは訳しにくい単語の筆頭。人間を能動主体と見る場合(人間がchallengeする)は「挑戦」、受動主体と見る場合(人間がchallengeされる)は「課題」というのが一応の目安になる。
  • 「窮地に立たされる」は言い過ぎか。「課題に直面している」ぐらいでよかったかもしれない。


The location of the office building offers a lot of drawbacks.




  • 誰にpresentするかが示されていない場合は、「人間に」与えると解釈するのが原則。


The change in fiscal policy represents a major departure from the President's principle.




  • meanはある事態から導き出される「結果」や「可能性」を示すのに対し、representはある事態から導き出される「解釈」や「評価」を示す。
  • この文の主体は「大統領」だと考えられるので、「大統領は~」とできる。財政政策の変更の最高決定権者はだれか、を考える必要があった。


Table 3 contains the minimum commission schedules used by NYSE member brokerages.




  • 「取引所会員」という概念を失念していた。
  • containの主語が情報媒体で、目的語がその情報内容の一部を示している場合「~は~を掲載している」、目的語がその情報内容の全体を示している場合「~は~である」。


The work consists of cutting trees and bushes along roadsides.




  • 「高木」tree、「低木」bush。へー。

「高木」と「低木」の違いは? | 1分で読める!! [ 違いは? ]

These substances present great dangers to sea animals.



The switching networks can be very complex, and the logic of complicated program can be very difficult to analyze.




  • the switching networksというものがもし特定の「交換網」だとすればその性質は分かっているはずなので、助動詞のcanが用いられることはない。よって、the switching networksを交換網一般と捉えて、「~には~のものがある」「~は~ことがある」などとする。


HRCT represents a great advance in the diagnosis of centrilobular emphysema.




  • representは「結果」と「手段」というよりも、「事物」とその「評価」を示していると解釈すべきところ。「~は~である」としている模範訳例がよい。


Figure 8 shows a television picture tube as an example of a CRT.




  • 「図8」を見ればそれがtelevision picture tubeであることは分かるので、むしろこの場合は、as an example of a CRTという点に重点が置かれているものと思われます。


These components include pushbuttons and selectors.




  • 「~には~や~がある」型にしたのはよかったが、「など」を入れるとより全体の中の部分というニュアンスがでる。


The use of the name constitutes an infringement of the trademark right.



A P/E ratio of 10(10/1) represents a 10 percent yield because earnings are 1/10(10 percent) of the price per share.



  • 「~が~であれば、~ということになる」。ある指標がある数値になれば、具体的にどのような意味をもつか、という一種の意味付け表現であると解釈する。


The increase represented the fourth consecutive monthly rise in this category.





  • 大学の専門が英語だった。
  • 洋書を読む。訳書と比べる。読む、ひたすら読む。
  • SNSで好きな有名人をフォロー。
  • Podcast、Webサイトで英語を聞く。
  • ブラウザのHPを外国語のサイトに。
  • 洋楽を聴く。
  • 英会話・英語サークルに通う。
  • 英文雑誌・新聞を購読。
  • 文法を勉強。→高校の文法参考書やTOEICの参考書がオススメ。
  • 「これは!」と思った表現/覚えたい単語を、手帳/単語カードに書き留める。
  • TOEICTOEFLなどのテストを受けてみる。
  • 英語勉強ゲーム。


  • 読書。読む、ひたすら読む。
  • ニュースを見る・読む(語彙強化etc)
  • 新聞社/雑誌社で働いていた(ハンドブックに慣れていた)。
  • NHKで台本の校正をしていた。
  • 自分の文を誰かに評価してもらう。
  • ブログ/小説を書く。たくさん書く(目的/意図を持って書く)。


  • 前職を生かした。
  • SNSで企業や製品をフォロー。
  • 雑誌を読む。
  • セミナーに参加。
  • 専門書を買う(書籍への出費は惜しまない)。図書館で調べる。
  • Webでひたすら調べる。
  • PC自作。トラブルに苦しむと知識が付く。
  • 資格試験を受ける。


  • 翻訳に関する講座を受ける。
  • 翻訳会社のトライアルを受ける。
  • 日本翻訳連盟(JTF)の「ほんやく検定」を受けてみる。
  • JAT、JTFのセミナーに参加。
  • 大学でやった内容の復習(Linux)。
  • スクールに通った。

道案内に関する英語表現 リンク集


【学習メモ】TED シェリル・サンドバーグ:何故女性のリーダーは少ないのか

So for any of us in this room today, let's start out by admitting we're lucky. We don't live in the world our mothers lived in, our grandmothers lived in, where career choices for women were so limited. And if you're in this room today, most of us grew up in a world where we have basic civil rights, and amazingly, we still live in a world where some women don't have them. But all that aside *1, we still have a problem, and it's a real problem. And the problem is this: Women are not making it to the top of any profession anywhere in the world. The numbers tell the story quite clearly. 190 heads of state — nine are women. Of all the people in parliament in the world, 13 percent are women. In the corporate sector, women at the top, C-level jobs*2, board seats — tops out at*3 15, 16 percent. The numbers have not moved since 2002 and are going in the wrong direction. And even in the non-profit world, a world we sometimes think of as being led by more women, women at the top: 20 percent.

We also have another problem, which is that women face harder choices between professional success and personal fulfillment. A recent study in the U.S. showed that, of married senior managers, two-thirds of the married men had children and only one-third of the married women had children. A couple of years ago, I was in New York, and I was pitching a deal*4, and I was in one of those fancy New York private equity*5 offices you can picture. And I'm in the meeting — it's about a three-hour meeting — and two hours in*6 there needs to be that bio break*7, and everyone stands up, and the partner running the meeting starts looking really embarrassed. And I realized he doesn't know where the women's room*8 is in his office. So I start looking around for moving boxes, figuring they just moved in, but I don't see any. And so I said, "Did you just move into this office?" And he said, "No, we've been here about a year." And I said, "Are you telling me that I am the only woman to have pitched a deal in this office in a year?" And he looked at me, and he said, "Yeah. Or maybe you're the only one who had to go to the bathroom."


So the question is, how are we going to fix this? How do we change these numbers at the top? How do we make this different? I want to start out by saying, I talk about this — about keeping women in the workforce — because I really think that's the answer. In the high-income part of our workforce, in the people who end up at the top — Fortune 500 CEO jobs, or the equivalent in other industries — the problem, I am convinced, is that women are dropping out. Now people talk about this a lot, and they talk about things like flextime and mentoring and programs companies should have to train women. I want to talk about none of that today, even though that's all really important. Today I want to focus on what we can do as individuals. What are the messages we need to tell ourselves? What are the messages we tell the women that work with and for us? What are the messages we tell our daughters?

Now, at the outset*9, I want to be very clear that this speech comes with no judgments. I don't have the right answer. I don't even have it for myself. I left San Francisco, where I live, on Monday, and I was getting on the plane for this conference. And my daughter, who's three, when I dropped her off at preschool, did that whole hugging-the-leg*10, crying, "Mommy, don't get on the plane" thing. This is hard. I feel guilty sometimes. I know no women, whether they're at home or whether they're in the workforce, who don't feel that sometimes. So I'm not saying that staying in the workforce is the right thing for everyone.

My talk today is about what the messages are if you do want to stay in the workforce, and I think there are three. One, sit at the table. Two, make your partner a real partner. And three, don't leave before you leave. Number one: sit at the table. Just a couple weeks ago at Facebook, we hosted a very senior government official, and he came in to meet with senior execs from around Silicon Valley. And everyone kind of*11 sat at the table. He had these two women who were traveling with him pretty senior in his department, and I kind of said to them, "Sit at the table. Come on, sit at the table," and they sat on the side of the room. When I was in college, my senior year, I took a course called European Intellectual History. Don't you love that kind of thing from college? I wish I could do that now. And I took it with my roommate, Carrie, who was then a brilliant literary student — and went on to be a brilliant literary scholar — and my brother — smart guy, but a water-polo-playing*12 pre-med*13, who was a sophomore.

The three of us take this class together. And then Carrie reads all the books in the original Greek and Latin, goes to all the lectures. I read all the books in English and go to most of the lectures. My brother is kind of busy. He reads one book of 12 and goes to a couple of lectures, marches himself up to our room a couple days before the exam to get himself tutored. The three of us go to the exam together, and we sit down. And we sit there for three hours — and our little blue notebooks — yes, I'm that old. We walk out, we look at each other, and we say, "How did you do?" And Carrie says, "Boy, I feel like I didn't really draw out the main point on the Hegelian dialectic*14." And I say, "God, I really wish I had really connected John Locke's theory of property with the philosophers that follow." And my brother says, "I got the top grade in the class."


"You got the top grade in the class? You don't know anything."


The problem with these stories is that they show what the data shows: women systematically underestimate their own abilities. If you test men and women, and you ask them questions on totally objective criteria like GPAs, men get it wrong*15 slightly high, and women get it wrong slightly low. Women do not negotiate for themselves in the workforce. A study in the last two years of people entering the workforce out of college showed that 57 percent of boys entering, or men, I guess, are negotiating their first salary, and only seven percent of women. And most importantly, men attribute their success to themselves, and women attribute it to other external factors. If you ask men why they did a good job, they'll say, "I'm awesome. Obviously. Why are you even asking?" If you ask women why they did a good job, what they'll say is someone helped them, they got lucky, they worked really hard. Why does this matter? Boy, it matters a lot. Because no one gets to the corner office*16 by sitting on the side, not at the table, and no one gets the promotion if they don't think they deserve their success, or they don't even understand their own success.

I wish the answer were easy. I wish I could go tell all the young women I work for, these fabulous women, "Believe in yourself and negotiate for yourself. Own your own success." I wish I could tell that to my daughter. But it's not that simple. Because what the data shows, above all else, is one thing, which is that success and likeability*17 are positively correlated for men and negatively correlated for women. And everyone's nodding, because we all know this to be true.

There's a really good study that shows this really well. There's a famous Harvard Business School study on a woman named Heidi Roizen. And she's an operator in a company in Silicon Valley, and she uses her contacts to become a very successful venture capitalist. In 2002 — not so long ago — a professor who was then at Columbia University took that case and made it [Howard] Roizen. And he gave the case out*18, both of them, to two groups of students. He changed exactly one word: "Heidi" to "Howard." But that one word made a really big difference. He then surveyed the students, and the good news was the students, both men and women, thought Heidi and Howard were equally competent, and that's good. The bad news was that everyone liked Howard. He's a great guy. You want to work for him. You want to spend the day fishing with him. But Heidi? Not so sure. She's a little out for herself*19. She's a little political. You're not sure you'd want to work for her. This is the complication. We have to tell our daughters and our colleagues, we have to tell ourselves to believe we got the A, to reach for the promotion, to sit at the table, and we have to do it in a world where, for them, there are sacrifices they will make for that*20, even though for their brothers, there are not.

The saddest thing about all of this is that it's really hard to remember this. And I'm about to tell a story which is truly embarrassing for me, but I think important. I gave this talk at Facebook not so long ago to about 100 employees, and a couple hours later, there was a young woman who works there sitting outside my little desk, and she wanted to talk to me. I said, okay, and she sat down, and we talked. And she said, "I learned something today. I learned that I need to keep my hand up." "What do you mean?" She said, "You're giving this talk, and you said you would take two more questions. I had my hand up with many other people, and you took two more questions. I put my hand down, and I noticed all the women did the same, and then you took more questions, only from the men." And I thought to myself, "Wow, if it's me — who cares about this, obviously — giving this talk — and during this talk, I can't even notice that the men's hands are still raised, and the women's hands are still raised, how good are we as managers of our companies and our organizations at seeing that the men are reaching for opportunities more than women?" We've got to get women to sit at the table.



Message number two: Make your partner a real partner. I've become convinced that we've made more progress in the workforce than we have in the home. The data shows this very clearly. If a woman and a man work full-time and have a child, the woman does twice the amount of housework the man does, and the woman does three times the amount of childcare the man does. So she's got three jobs or two jobs, and he's got one. Who do you think drops out when someone needs to be home more? The causes of this are really complicated, and I don't have time to go into them. And I don't think Sunday football-watching and general laziness is the cause.

I think the cause is more complicated. I think, as a society, we put more pressure on our boys to succeed than we do on our girls. I know men that stay home and work in the home to support wives with careers, and it's hard. When I go to the Mommy-and-Me stuff*21 and I see the father there, I notice that the other mommies don't play with him. And that's a problem, because we have to make it as important a job, because it's the hardest job in the world to work inside the home, for people of both genders, if we're going to even things out*22 and let women stay in the workforce.


Studies show that households with equal earning and equal responsibility also have half the divorce rate. And if that wasn't good enough motivation for everyone out there, they also have more — how shall I say this on this stage? They know each other more in the biblical*23 sense as well.


Message number three: Don't leave before you leave. I think there's a really deep irony to the fact that actions women are taking — and I see this all the time — with the objective of staying in the workforce actually lead to their eventually leaving. Here's what happens: We're all busy. Everyone's busy. A woman's busy. And she starts thinking about having a child, and from the moment she starts thinking about having a child, she starts thinking about making room for that child. "How am I going to fit this into everything else I'm doing?" And literally from that moment, she doesn't raise her hand anymore, she doesn't look for a promotion, she doesn't take on the new project, she doesn't say, "Me. I want to do that." She starts leaning back*24. The problem is that — let's say she got pregnant that day, that day — nine months of pregnancy, three months of maternity leave, six months to catch your breath — Fast-forward two years, more often — and as I've seen it — women start thinking about this way earlier — when they get engaged, or married, when they start thinking about having a child, which can take a long time. One woman came to see me about this. She looked a little young. And I said, "So are you and your husband thinking about having a baby?" And she said, "Oh no, I'm not married." She didn't even have a boyfriend.


I said, "You're thinking about this just way too*25 early."

But the point is that what happens once you start kind of quietly leaning back? Everyone who's been through this — and I'm here to tell you, once you have a child at home, your job better be really good to go back, because it's hard to leave that kid at home. Your job needs to be challenging. It needs to be rewarding. You need to feel like you're making a difference. And if two years ago you didn't take a promotion and some guy next to you did, if three years ago you stopped looking for new opportunities, you're going to be bored because you should have kept your foot on the gas pedal. Don't leave before you leave. Stay in. Keep your foot on the gas pedal, until the very day you need to leave to take a break for a child — and then make your decisions. Don't make decisions too far in advance, particularly ones you're not even conscious you're making.

My generation really, sadly, is not going to change the numbers at the top. They're just not moving. We are not going to get to where 50 percent of the population — in my generation, there will not be 50 percent of [women] at the top of any industry. But I'm hopeful that future generations can. I think a world where half of our countries and our companies were run by women, would be a better world. It's not just because people would know where the women's bathrooms are, even though that would be very helpful. I think it would be a better world. I have two children. I have a five-year-old son and a two-year-old daughter. I want my son to have a choice to contribute fully in the workforce or at home, and I want my daughter to have the choice to not just succeed, but to be liked for her accomplishments.

Thank you.




*3:top out at 〔数値などが〕最高~に達する

*4:pitch a deal 取引を持ちかける

*5:private equity 未公開株式

*6:時間 in : ~を過ぎたところで

*7:bio break : トイレ休憩

*8:women's room : 女性用トイレ、化粧室

*9:at the outset : まず初めに

*10:whole hugging-the-leg : 足にしがみついて

*11:kind of : 〈話〉ある程度、やや、多少、ちょっと◆断定を避けるため、表現を和らげるために使う。

*12:water polo: : 水球

*13:pre-med : 医学進学過程の学生

*14:the Hegelian dialectic : ヘーゲル弁証法

*15:get it wrong : を誤解する

*16:corner office : 役員室

*17:likeability : 好感度

*18:give out : 発表する、配布する

*19:be out for oneself : 身勝手である

*20:make sacrifices for ~

*21:Mommy-and-Me stuff : おかあさんと子供がいっしょにする活動全般のこと

*22:even O out : を均等に分配する、を平らにする

*23:biblical : 聖書に書かれている、聖書に関する

*24:lean back : 身を引く、仰け反る

*25:way too : very




Translation Practice part 3: necessity

The milling machine requires a clearer understanding of the risks involved in its operation.





  • 「requireを使った文の解釈では、permitの場合と同様、まず主語が「意思のない無生物」「意思のある無生物」「人間」のどれにあたるかという点を見極める必要があります。そして、「意思のない無生物」を主語として「行為」を目的語とする場合は、「主語と人間の関係において目的語の行為が必要となる」という意味になるので、この例題の場合、機械と人間の通常の関係はどのようなものか、機械は人間にとってどのような意味を持つ対象なのか、と考えなくてはいけません。」
  • 機械と人間の通常の関係は、「人間が機会を使う」という関係。よって、「(人間が)フライス盤を使う場合には」という意味で主語は理解されることになる。
  • 目的語である「要求されるもの」の内容は「行為」なので、「理解を必要とする」は「理解していなければならない」と人間主体で訳した方がよい。
  • operationを「操作」とするか「作業」とするか。
  • clearerの訳はいつも迷うが「明確に」を一番無難な訳としてインプットしておきたい。


Present economic development will not demand a relaxation of credit policy.





  • economic developmentを「経済発展」とするのは少し不自然な気はしていた。「経済の状況」「経済の動向」「景気の動向」ぐらいがぴったりのようだ。
  • demandはrequireと同様に考える。主語にあたる「要求するもの」として「仕事」「対象」「状況」などが挙げられるが、ここは「状況」なので、「~の状況では」「~の状況からして」などとすればピッタリ。
  • willは現状の延長線上では緩和は必要ない、といった意味になっているので、「当面~必要ない」。「当面」の挿入はなかなか浮かばない。
  • 金融政策緩和という言葉は一般的とは思えない。「金融緩和」がいいのでは。あるいは妥協して「金融政策の緩和」。


The feature film cost more money and also entailed creative thought.





  • moneyやthoughtを「要求するもの」はthe feature filmの「製作」という「仕事」。したがって、「~では」「~するには」とするのがよい。
  • entailは「(労力などを)強いる」(goo辞書)。ロングマンには「to involve something as a necessary part or result」(longman)とあったので、何かを必要とする系の動詞だということがわかる。


Part 4 assumes a knowledge of Part 3.





  • assumeは「to be based on the idea that something else is correct」「syn : presuppose」(longman)。"主語に「知的生産物」(=理論、本、予定など、人が考えることにより生み出すもの)をとります。こうした「知的生産物」の「(基本的な)目的」は、理論であれば「成立すること」、本であれば「正しく読まれること」、予定であれば「実現すること」などになるでしょう。これらの目的は一種の「機能」と見なすことができるかもしれません。その目的を念頭において「(知的生産物の)生産者」の側からassumeの意味を表現すると、理論であれば「~を前提として考える」、本であれば「~を前提として書く」、予定であれば「~を前提として立てる」ということになります。”
  • パート3の知識を前提として書かれている、つまり、パート3の知識がなくては読めないということを意味している文。何のパートなのか分からなかったので、コンテクスト抜きに「書く」とは訳しづらい。


This terminal has double-faced sockets which eliminate the need for the part.




  • ”eliminate the need forは「機能を不要にする関係」を示す表現。requireの否定形とは異なり一種の因果動詞であって、主語の登場や利用によって、目的語の機能がそこで考えられている人間にとって必要なくなる、ということを示す表現です。つまり、ここでは「両面ソケット」が原因となって「その部品」が人間にとって必要なくなる、ということになります。そして、ここで考えられている人間とは「端末を使う人間」です。”
  • double-faced sockets「両面ソケット」
  • terminal「 one of the points at which you can connect wires in an electrical circuit」(longman)


Toxicity in overdose means that the parents should be strongly urged to keep the drugs stored away from young children.





  • should be strongly urged to do「~することを心がけるのが肝要である」。←思い切った意訳!
  • young childrenはgoogle画像検索をすると、幼稚園や小学校低学年くらいの子どもたちの写真がたくさん出てくる。「幼い子供」「小さな子供」ぐらいの意味であろう。


The debit card eliminated the need for carrying cash.





  • 初めて模範訳例と同じ訳になった!読点の有無は違いはありつつも。句読点の付け方はいずれテーマとして掘り下げたいところ。


The domestic context needs particular vigilance.





  • contextはここでは「状況」がよい。


Three unknowns would demand three equations for the solution.





  • unknownは数学用語で「未知数」。
  • (翻訳)は明確な間違い。Sがfor以下のためにOを要求する、という型なので、「3つの未知数を解くなら」でないといけない。solveするのは未知数であって、方程式ではない。


This application requires a large capacity storage to retain several programs.





  • storageは「記憶装置」。「ストレージ」も一般用語化しているような気がするが如何に。
  • retainはインターネットを参考にして「保持」とした。
  • ”主語が「機能」であっても「~を使う」のように訳すことができます。”


The investment objective assumes that the investor is essentially greedy.




  • 投資目標は「立てる」ものである。
  • essentiallyは訳すのが難しい単語。It is essential that SV的な型に変換して訳すべきことも多い印象がある。ここでは単に「本質として」とか「本質的に」でピッタリくるのでそういったことをする必要はなさそうだ。


The simulation approach calls for a quantitative description of the system and the programming of the model for computers.





  • 「この」シミュレーション・アプローチ、とするか迷ったが、シミュレーション・アプローチに様々な種類があり、その1つを選んでいる、というニュアンスが出るので、避けた。
  • quantitative「定量的な」⇔qualitative「定性的な」。
  • programming「プログラミング」はもう専門用語として一般化しているようだ。
  • IT翻訳は何をカタカナで済ましてよいのか判断が難しい。今後の課題。


This theory assumes that all molecules above absolute zero are in motion.





  • 「理論は、~という前提で考えられている」。「理論は、を前提としている」も悪くないと思うのだが。
  • 「上の」より「高い」の方がよさそう。
  • 「より高い温度の分子」よりも「より高い温度では、分子が」としている。


A better solution necessitates the use of the method.





  • 「~を実現するには~が必要」という型。
  • 比較級の訳においては、例えばlonger press on the push buttonの「長押し」のように、「より」という2文字は省かれることがしばしばある。しかし、「より良い」の「より」は許容範囲と言えそうだ。
  • 「~必要がある」でもいいと思うが、模範訳例では「~しなければならない」としている。この点どういった意図なのだろうか。


Technical writing demands simple and short sentences.





  • demandは「to ask for something very firmly, especially because you think you have a right to do this」。「~しなければならない」という訳にしやすい語ではある。
  • simple and shortで「簡潔な」としている。
  • sentencesと複数形になっているので、「文」よりも大きな単位としての「文章」がよい。