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HU sham test 3 [1]

大学入試等(entrance exams)

[1]次の英文を読んで,第2段落から宣言的知識(declarative knowledge)と手続き的知識(procedural knowledge)とはそれぞれどのようなものか第3段落からその2つはどのように関係しうるのかについてまとめ,かつ,第4段落からそれら2 つの知識が専門技能(expertise) とどのように関わりあっているかについてもまとめなさい。記述は日本語で,220-240字で書きなさい。句読点も字数に含めます。

 Learning is fundamental to life. In its absence a person is unlikely to survive, and at a societal level the existence of a culture depends on people acquiring common knowledge and norms. In broad terms, learning may be called cognitive and physical activity giving rise to a relatively permanent change in knowledge or skill.

 Knowledge can be viewed as either 'declarative' or 'procedural'. Declarative knowledge comprises factual information about what is the case, whereas procedural knowledge is made up of routines specifying how to do something. Those may be either physical or mental, so that the effective handling of a baseball bat and the conduct of mental calculations are both instances of procedural knowledge. Declarative knowledge is usually explicit, in that a person can report it; but procedural knowledge is often implicit, revealed in outcomes rather than in conscious awareness of the routines themselves.

 Most learning involves the acquisition of knowledge of both kinds, but some declarative knowledge must be acquired before proceduralization is possible. Initially a learner gains information about individual facts and their inter-relationships in different situations. Procedural knowledge is very similar to what is sometimes referred to as 'skill'. Skilled behaviour involves effective handling of particular situations and the term 'skill' usually implies that a person's performance is a result of learning.

 A related concept is 'expertise'. The outcomes from learning introduced above as knowledge and skill may be viewed in terms of increased expertise. Studies have contrasted experts in a particular domain against novices in that domain. Experts have been shown to have a superior and more organized knowledge-base; they perceive and recall larger meaningful patterns in their domain, search for and locate information more effectively, are better at anticipating future developments and potential faults, make more sophisticated plans, and can more quickly process new information within their established knowledge structure.

(Adapted from Psychology at Work)