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HU sham test 4 [1]

大学入試等(entrance exams)

[1] 次の英文はストレスとその対処法に関して書かれたものである。人はストレスに対処する際, どのような行為に向かいがちであるのか,またそれから得られる効果をどう感じているのかを指摘したうえで,ストレスが原因で意志の力がうまく機能しない状態になるのを避ける方法として筆者が提案していることを本文に基づいて,200-220字以内の日本語で要約しなさい。句読点も字数に含めます。


 When you're feeling down, what do you do to feel better? If you're like most people, you turn to the promise of reward. According to the American Psychological Association (APA), the most commonly used strategies for dealing with stress are those that activate the brain's reward system: eating, drinking, shopping, watching television, surfing the Web, and playing video games. And why not? Dopamine promises us that we're going to feel good. It's only natural that we turn to the biggest dopamine releasers when we want to feel better. Call it the promise of relief.


 Wanting to feel better is a healthy survival mechanism, as built into our human nature as the instinct to flee danger. But where we turn for relief matters. The promise of reward does not always mean that we will feel good. More often, the things we turn to for relief end up turning on us. The APA's national survey on stress found that the most commonly used strategies were also rated as highly ineffective by the same people who reported using them. For example, only 16 percent of people who eat to reduce stress report that it actually helps them. Another study found that women are most likely to eat chocolate when they are feeling anxious or depressed, but the only reliable change in mood they experience from their drug of choice is an increase in guilt. Certainly not what most of us are looking for when we reach for our favorite comfort food!


 As we explore the effects of stress, anxiety, and guilt on self-control, we'll see that feeling bad leads to giving in, and often in surprising ways. Frightening cigarette warnings can make smokers crave a cigarette, economic crises can make people shop, and the nightly news can make you fat. No, it's not logical, but it's utterly human. If we want to avoid such stress-induced willpower failures, we'll need to find a way to feel better that doesn't require turning to temptation. We'll also need to give up the self-control strategies - like guilt and self-criticism - that only make us feel worse.


(Adapted from The Willpower Instinct)


解答例1

 人はストレスに対処する際,飲食や買い物といった,気分を良くしてくれるドーパミンを放出させる行為に向かいがちだが,これらの行為は効果がないと感じており,罪悪感を増大させる場合もある。ストレスが原因で意志の力がうまく機能しない状態になるのを避けるため,誘惑に向かわずとも気分が良くなる方法を見つけ,罪悪感や自己批判といった気分を悪くさせるだけの自己統制の方策を捨てる必要があることを筆者は提案している。


解答例2

 人はストレスに対処する際、飲食などにより脳の報酬系を活性化させる行為に向かいがちである。たしかにドーパミンが放出されれば気分はよくなるものだが、常に効果があるとは限らず、罪の意識を感じる人もいる。ストレスが原因で意志の力がうまく機能しない状態になるのを避ける方法として、誘惑に向わずとも気分がよくなる手段の発見、罪の意識や自己批判のような単に気分を悪くするだけの自己統制戦略の放棄、を提案している。