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HU sham test 6 [1]

大学入試等(entrance exams)

〔I〕 次の英文は情報通信技術(ICT)の発達とその影響について述べた文章です。これを読んで,20世紀後半以降に情報通信技術の発達が社会家庭,そして人々の心にどのような影響をもたらしているかを日本語で180~200字にまとめなさい。句読点,記号や数字も1字に数えます。

 Critics often associate the loss of community with the increased technologization and resulting privatization of society. The erosion of traditional forms and places of family and community that we are now witnessing began with the Industrial Revolution that was accompanied by what Raymond Williams describes as the phenomenon of "mobile privatization." As a result of the development of an industrial economy, the population was dispersed; places of work and home were separated and community members were isolated from one another in privatized forms of living. However, earlier information and communication technologies (ICTs) such as the telephone, radio and newspaper enabled the maintenance of links with geographically dispersed communities. More recently, since the late 20th century, the television, computer and mobile phone have further eroded the boundaries between work and home and, at the same time, undermined the significance of place, time and space.

 In the past, physical places such as the home and the factory defined social roles and status. A change in social situation resulted from movement from one place to another across space and time. Doorways, which enable inclusion and exclusion, marked social roles or place. As a consequence of their ability to permeate (注1) walls and travel great distances almost instantaneously, ICTs destroy the specialness of space and time and bypass the social rite of 'passage.' They also destroy the specialness of place - a uniqueness defined by the activities associated with it - by turning public spaces into private ones and private spaces into public ones. Furthermore, it is as a result of ICTs that our world has become, for the first time in modern history, relatively placeless. Wherever one is now - at home, at work, or in a car - one may be in touch and tuned-in.

 Large-scale societal change accompanied by rapid and increasingly mobile technological development around the turn of the millennium has therefore resulted in the undermining of traditional familial divisions (注2) within the home along with the dissolution of the boundaries between the private home and the wider community. This can cause feelings of insecurity and/or anxiety among both adults and young people who still feel the need to belong to a secure, familiar place within which they know their social place. We all want to belong to a community, but as a result of fragmenting culture, fractured experience and social and geographical mobility, we have come to lack certainty as to what it is.

(Adapted from Information Security & Ethics)

(注1) permeate : 通り抜ける
(注2)familial division : 家族間の役割区分